American journal of preventive medicine, 2016; doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.07.020
Affiliation: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States (show more (6))
Sample size: 392
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Data on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to cardiovascular disease are limited in women. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal relations of tuna and dark fish, α-linolenic acid, and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake with incident major cardiovascular disease in women.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of U.S. women participating in the Women's Health Study from 1993 to 2014, during which the data were collected and analyzed. A total of 39,876 women who were aged ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline provided dietary data on food frequency questionnaires. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between fish and energy-adjusted omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and the risk of major cardiovascular disease, defined as a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, in 38,392 women in the final analytic sample (96%).
RESULTS: During 713,559 person years of follow-up, 1,941 cases of incident major cardiovascular disease were confirmed. Tuna and dark fish intake was not associated with the risk of incident major cardiovascular disease (p-trend >0.05). Neither α-linolenic acid nor marine omega-3 fatty acid intake was associated with major cardiovascular disease or with individual cardiovascular outcomes (all p-trend >0.05). There was no effect modification by age, BMI, or baseline history of hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of women without history of cardiovascular disease, intakes of tuna and dark fish, α-linolenic acid, and marine omega-3 fatty acids were not associated with risk of major cardiovascular disease.
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