High prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE viruses among female commercial sex workers residing in Surabaya, Indonesia.

PloS one, 2013; 8 (12) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082645

Authors: Kotaki Tomohiro, Khairunisa Siti Qamariyah, Sukartiningrum Septhia Dwi, Arfijanto M Vitanata, Utsumi Takako et al.(9)

Affiliation: Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia; Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Hyōgo, Japan; Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia; Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia; Airlangga University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia (show more (17))

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and have an impact on the Indonesian economy. In addition, the rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. Commercial sex plays a significant role in the spread of HIV; therefore, in order to reveal the current HIV prevalence rate among commercial sex workers (CSWs), we conducted an epidemiological study on HIV infection among CSWs residing in Surabaya, the capital of East Java province of Indonesia with large communities of CSWs.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of HIV infection among 200 CSWs was studied. In addition, the subtype of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and the prevalence of other blood-borne viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (GBV-C), were studied. The prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies and anti-GBV-C antibodies were 11%, 64%, 4%, 0.5% and 0% among CSWs involved in this study, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE viral gene fragments were detected in most HIV-positive samples. In addition, most CSWs showed low awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and had unprotected sex with their clients.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HIV prevalence rate among CSWs was significantly higher than that among the general population in Indonesia (0.2-0.4%). In addition, CSWs were at a high risk of exposure to HBV, although chronic HBV infection was less frequently established. Our results suggest the necessity of efficient prevention programs for HIV and other blood-borne viral infections among CSWs in Surabaya, Indonesia.

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