Failure of norfloxacin to eradicate Chlamydia trachomatis in nongonococcal urethritis.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1986; 30 (4) doi:

Authors: Bowie W R, Willetts V, Sibau L

Abstract: Norfloxacin has some activity in vitro against Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, although not at levels attainable in serum. In this study, norfloxacin was administered (400 mg orally twice daily for 10 days) to men with acute nongonococcal urethritis. Of 25 men from whom C. trachomatis was initially isolated, 21 had the organism reisolated at the first follow-up visit posttreatment, and there were minimal changes in the number of inclusion-forming units in culture. Ultimately, all but 1 of the 22 men from whom C. trachomatis was initially isolated and who were monitored became clinical failures within 42 +/- 7 days posttreatment. The clinical outcome was significantly better for men from whom U. urealyticum was initially isolated but from whom C. trachomatis was not isolated. Of 27 men, 17 became and stayed culture negative for U. urealyticum at follow-ups, and clinically, 15 no longer had nongonococcal urethritis. Of these 15, all 12 monitored until at least 42 +/- 7 days posttreatment remained improved. Of 26 men from whom neither C. trachomatis nor U. urealyticum was initially isolated, 18 improved and all 15 who were monitored until at least 42 +/- 7 days posttreatment remained improved. Thus, although norfloxacin attains high levels in urine and has good tissue penetration, it had essentially no activity against chlamydial urethritis in men. It had better, but incomplete, activity against U. urealyticum. For quinolones to show promise in vivo against C. trachomatis, either the MICs will need to be much lower or the levels attained in serum will have to be much higher.

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