JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 2007; 297 (21) doi:10.1001/jama.297.21.2351
Affiliation: Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, United States
Abstract: CONTEXT: Laboratory and epidemiological data suggest that folic acid may have an antineoplastic effect in the large intestine.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of folic acid supplementation for preventing colorectal adenomas.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-factor, phase 3, randomized clinical trial conducted at 9 clinical centers between July 6, 1994, and October 1, 2004. Participants included 1021 men and women with a recent history of colorectal adenomas and no previous invasive large intestine carcinoma.
INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1 mg/d of folic acid (n = 516) or placebo (n = 505), and were separately randomized to receive aspirin (81 or 325 mg/d) or placebo. Follow-up consisted of 2 colonoscopic surveillance cycles (the first interval was at 3 years and the second at 3 or 5 years later).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was occurrence of at least 1 colorectal adenoma. Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of advanced lesions (> or =25% villous features, high-grade dysplasia, size > or =1 cm, or invasive cancer) and adenoma multiplicity (0, 1-2, or > or =3 adenomas).
RESULTS: During the first 3 years, 987 participants (96.7%) underwent colonoscopic follow-up, and the incidence of at least 1 colorectal adenoma was 44.1% for folic acid (n = 221) and 42.4% for placebo (n = 206) (unadjusted risk ratio [RR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-1.20; P = .58). Incidence of at least 1 advanced lesion was 11.4% for folic acid (n = 57) and 8.6% for placebo (n = 42) (unadjusted RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.90-1.92; P = .15). A total of 607 participants (59.5%) underwent a second follow-up, and the incidence of at least 1 colorectal adenoma was 41.9% for folic acid (n = 127) and 37.2% for placebo (n = 113) (unadjusted RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.93-1.37; P = .23); and incidence of at least 1 advanced lesion was 11.6% for folic acid (n = 35) and 6.9% for placebo (n = 21) (unadjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.00-2.80; P = .05). Folic acid was associated with higher risks of having 3 or more adenomas and of noncolorectal cancers. There was no significant effect modification by sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, baseline plasma folate, or aspirin allocation.
CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid at 1 mg/d does not reduce colorectal adenoma risk. Further research is needed to investigate the possibility that folic acid supplementation might increase the risk of colorectal neoplasia.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00272324.
The top research papers for the subject are placed on the map. Studies form clusters based on semantic relation.
Size of the point represents relevance of the paper.
You can pan and zoom the graph using mouse and mouse wheel.
Right click on the paper to:
Left click on keyword to add it to search.
Sign up to create your own map!
Life Sciences from above.
Enrich your research by presenting a Bigger Picture statistics about your field of study.